Expecting parents in Alabama hope the best for the upcoming birth of their baby. While most labors and deliveries occur with no complications, there are times that a baby may incur an injury during birth. There are numerous causes of birth trauma, and some injuries are only temporary while others may have long-lasting results.

According to Stanford Children’s Health, there are certain factors that increase the risk of injuries at birth. A larger-than-normal baby can cause problems, as can an overweight mother. There is also an increased risk when the baby comes out prematurely or if he or she is not positioned headfirst.

The labor itself can play a big factor. A long labor can wear down the mother, as can one that is challenging due to various factors. There is also a higher incident of birth injuries if the doctor needs to use forceps or there is delivery by c-section.

Very Well Health reports that most birth injuries affect the joints, bones and/or nerves of the baby. Erb’s Palsy often occurs if there is a pulling of the head and arm in opposite directions. This causes injury to the brachial plexus, which is made up of nerves underneath the clavicle. The result typically is one arm weakness.

The most common birth injury is a broken clavicle. This often causes pain over the affected area, but full recovery usually occurs within weeks.

Another fracture that may occur is to the growth plate of an arm or leg. A common sign is swelling at the end of the bone. Less common is a fracture of the thighbone, and this happens if the delivery causes a strange twisting of the leg. This shows up as pain with the changing of the diaper or general movement.